PHP on Apache: The Definitive Installation Guide

The technology that supports the Web continues to evolve, and one of the latest mutations involves capitalising on its very user-driven interactivity. The days of all-static content are past; the Web has evolved to a point at which many sites actually remember personal preferences for each of their (potentially millions) of visitors. News sites may display stories in only those categories you find interesting; online music stores can provide you with listings of new works sorted in order by your favourite artists; Web search engines can learn to implicitly restrict the types of content they'll list for you. The possibilities are endless, and the key is generating a unique presentation for each viewer.

Need a hands-on guide to installing PHP on your Apache installation? Apache pioneer Ken Coar provides a step-by-step road map to installing PHP on Apache.

There are a number of ways of accomplishing this, from the primitive fly-swatter capabilities provided by "server-side includes" to the tactical nuke Extra Strength features found in application servers. The PHP scripting language falls somewhere into the middle ground, supplying phenomenal capabilities for free.

What is PHP?

PHP is a scripting language, with a particular affinity for and emphasis on enhancing Web pages. It has a syntax very similar to C (with a smattering of Perl and shell), and includes lots and lots of functions for things like database access, dealing with CGI requests, and image creation and manipulation.

When PHP is used as an Apache module, and the language elements are embedded in the document pages themselves, the HTML file might look something like the following:

	 // Preload all the functions and other definitions we need.
	  = lookup_visitor();
	 echo "  <title>WhizBang Products: Welcome back, "
	     . ["first_name"] . "!</title>\n";
    <body bgcolor="#ffffff">

     <h1 align="center">Super-Duper Whizbang Products</h1>
     <h2 align="center">Welcome back,
      <? echo ["first_name"] . " "
             . ["last_name"]; ?></h2>

When a Web client requests a PHP-enabled page, the mod_php module gets to interpret the document and make changes to it before the Web server itself sends the results back. The results of the above PHP fragments might cause the following to be what the Web client actually receives:

     <title>WhizBang Products: Welcome back, Ken!<title>
    <body bgcolor="#ffffff">
     <h1 align="center">Super-Duper Whizbang Products</h1>
     <h2 align="center">Welcome back, Ken Coar</h2>

Notice how all the stuff between "<?" and "?>" was replaced—interpreted by mod_php—before it reached the browser? That's part of the power of PHP.

Assumptions in this Article

It's a good idea to maintain the PHP source in a different directory from your Apache source tree; since they're from separate projects, maintaining the separation in where the software lives avoids confusion. For the rest of this article, I'm going to make the following assumptions:

  1. your Apache source tree starts at ./apache-1.3/
  2. your Apache ServerRoot is /usr/local/web/apache
  3. your PHP source tree starts at ./php/php3/

All of the cd and other shell commands in this article that refer to directories use these locations.

This article was originally published on Aug 9, 2000
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