Tip of the Trade: Hardware Discovery From Outside
You don't have to open your computers to see what's inside, because Linux comes with a number of commands to tell you. lshw, or "list hardware," is one of them. Run it as root with no options: With lshw, Linux admins can find out what's under the hood -- without actually going under the hood. The "List hardware" command spits out a lot of information, including model numbers, motherboard features, chipsets, memory and drives.
This spits out a lot of information, including model numbers, motherboard features, chipsets, memory and drives. Unless you have some seriously offbeat hardware, it should report detailed information on nearly everything on your system. You can then output it to a file in HTML format, for nice easy reading in a Web browser:
# lshw -html > filename.html
You can look for specific classes of devices, such as
# lshw -class disk
Run lshw -businfo to see what your different class options are. man lshw gives complete command options.
lshw has a few limitations. It won't, for example, detect Firewire (IEEE1394) devices or emulated SCSI-over-IDE devices.
lspci is a similar command that reports information about PCI buses and connected devices. lspci is commonly used to find the information needed to locate hardware drivers. Run it with no options for a short hardware list:
Add -v, -vv, or -vvv to get more details. Sometimes all you need are the device codes; get these with lspci -n. lspci -t provides a tree view. man lspci gives complete options.
Be sure to run the pciids-update command occasionally to keep your hardware ID database current. You don't have to be running Linux installed on a system to get the benefit of these commands boot up a live Linux CD like Knoppix so you can use them on any system anywhere.