Using .htaccess Files with Apache Page 3

By Ken Coar (Send Email)
Posted Jul 19, 2000

Because .htaccess files are evaluated for each request, you don't need to reload the Apache server whenever you make a change. This makes them particularly well suited for environments with multiple groups or individuals sharing a single Web server system; if the Webmaster allows, they can exercide control over their own areas without nagging the Webmaster to reload Apache with each change. Also, if there's a syntax error in an .htaccess file, it only affects a portion of the server's Web space, rather than keeping the server from running at all (which is what would happen if the error was in the server-wide config files).

Directives that Work in .htaccess Files

Not all directives will work in .htaccess files; for example, it makes no sense to allow a ServerName directive to appear in one, since the server is already running and knows its name -- and cannot change it -- by the time a request would cause the .htaccess file to be read. Other directives aren't allowed because they deal with features that are server-wide, or perhaps are too sensitive.

However, most directives are allowed in .htaccess files. If you're not sure, take a look at the directive's documentation. Figure 1 is a sample extracted from the Apache documentation. You can see where the text says 'Context' that .htaccess is listed; that means this directive can be used in the per-directory config files.

The SetEnvIf Directive

Syntax: SetEnvIf attribute regex envar[=value] [...]
Default: none
Context: server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override: FileInfo
Status: Base
Module: mod_setenvif
Compatibility: Apache 1.3 and above; the Request_Protocol keyword and environment-variable matching are only available with 1.3.7 and later; use in .htaccess files only supported with 1.3.13 and later

Figure 1: Directive Documentation

Note, however, that there's more information on the Compatibility line; it says that this directive can only be used in .htaccess files if you're running Apache version 1.3.13 or later.

If you try to include a directive in an .htaccess file that isn't permitted there, any requests for documents under that directory will result in a '500 Server Error' error page and a message in the server's error log.

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